• Users Online: 193
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Referee Resource Subscribe
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-15

Effect of modifiable risk factors on semen parameters

1 IVF & Reproductive Biology Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, Del, India
2 Department of Urology, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 IVF & Reproductive Biology Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Saumya Prasad
IVF & Reproductive Biology Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/fsr.fsr_27_19

Rights and Permissions

Objective: This article examines the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyles factors such as diet, caffeine intake, tobacco chewing and alcohol intake. Method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. Results: A prudent diet consists of high intake of fish, fruit, vegetables and legumes. Fat in diet is also as essential as other component of the diet. Although largely the evidence is observation based, evidence appears to support an approach of moderation carbohydrate and fats with better semen parameters. A good intake of antioxidants in diet and supplement correlates with higher sperm numbers and motility. The other very important modifiable factors are tobacco chewing, alcohol and caffeine intake. Nicotine in tobacco is found to suppress sperm progressive motility; it also reduces the percentage of viable spermatozoa and increases the altered chromatin compactness. Alcohol consumption leads to increased testosterone level due to change in oxidation metabolism of steroids in liver. Alcohol oxidation increases the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) ratio which causes the re-dox state in favour of conversion of androstenedione into the reduced steroids testosterone and oestradiol. Caffeine intake has been associated with sperm DNA defects, aneuploidy and DNA breaks. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are the potential issues that can possibly impair male infertility. However, their negative impact can be overcome by behavioural modification and better lifestyle changes.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded348    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal